ADVANCEMENT IN THERAPEUTIC EFFORTS AND TOOLS FOR PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITIS

Imran Qadir

Abstract


Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM) is an autoimmune disease and is also called type 1diabetes. It occurs mostly due to CD8+ and CD4+ T lymphocytes which are actually the T-helper cells and very rarely by some virus and drugs which take the β-cells, insulin and proinsulin as its target. Th-cells may also affect by other ways i.e. by secreting the CXCL10 which are also reactive against the β-cells. In these patients there is low level of insulin causing high level of glucose also called hyperglycemia. To treat this autoimmune disorder we take some important steps either against the autoimmune responses or in the favor of proliferation of the β-cells or may take steps for the production of the insulin by either ways. There is possibility to give the patients monoclonal antibodies against the causative agents. We can also use the stem cells from pancreas that can grow to the new matured functional islet of langerhan. Moreover replacement of beta cell mass, non-endocrine cell production, antigen-based therapy, pancreatic transplantation, use of immunosuppressive monocyte and control of IDDM by using naturally found CD4 + CD25+, regulator of T lymphocytes, are other approaches. If we come to know the exact mechanism of CXCL10/CXCR3 system it may also be useful for us to treat the disease.


Keywords


Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM), CD8+ and CD4+ T lymphocytes, CXCL10/CXCR3 system, Islet Transplantation, Non-Endocrine Cell production, Antigen-Based Therapy, insulin epitope, islets of Langerhans, immunosuppressive monocyte

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